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Orientation and Mobility (O&M) Services
The federal definition Section 300.34 (c) (7) of the Individuals with Disability Education Act:
(7) Orientation and mobility services—
(i) Means services provided to blind or visually impaired children by qualified personnel to enable those students to attain systematic orientation to and safe movement within their environments in school, home, and community; and
(ii) Includes teaching children the following, as appropriate:
(A) Spatial and environmental concepts and use of information received by the senses (such as sound, temperature and vibrations) to establish, maintain, or regain orientation and line of travel (e.g., using sound at a traffic light to cross the street);
(B) To use the long cane or a service animal to supplement visual travel skills or as a tool for safely negotiating the environment for children with no available travel vision;
(C) To understand and use remaining vision and distance low vision aids; and
(D) Other concepts, techniques, and tools
2024 CDE Orientation & Mobility Seminar - INFORMATION COMING SOON!
Technical Assistance Documents
State and National Information and Resources
Colorado licensure requirements for the School Orientation and Mobility Specialist: For information about Colorado licensing requirements for the area of School Orientation and Mobility Specialist, please refer to the information contained within Educator Licensing’s Endorsement Requirements page (School Orientation and Mobility Specialist)
The Academy for Certification of Vision Rehabilitation and Education (ACVREP)
The ACVREP has a certification program for Orientation and Mobility Specialists. This site also has information about professional development opportunities offered for ACVREP clock hours. ACVREP certification is required for Colorado public School O&M Specialists.
Association for Education and Rehabilitation of the Blind and Visually Impaired (AER) Orientation and Mobility Division 9
The Orientation and Mobility Division (Division 9) of AER promotes professional standards and improvement of O&M evidence-based practices and services. Division 9 offers professional development opportunities, encourages quality university preparation of O&M Specialists, and works to enhance and expand O&M services for individuals with blindness/visual impairment and deaf-blindness.
Resources Specific to Dog Guide Schools
- Guide Dog Foundation for the Blind
- Guiding Eyes for the Blind
- Leader Dogs for the Blind
- Southeastern Guide Dogs
- Seeing Eye
Resources Specific to Recreation / Movement Opportunities
Web Resources to Lean More about Orientation and Mobility
- The Blind Life YouTube Channel
This YouTube channel includes a variety of videos and podcasts about being blind/visually impaired that highlights tips for navigating life with low vision
- Chris Tabb: LiveBinder Resources for O&M Specialists
There is a multitude of O&M resources and tools on LiveBinder, which is created and maintained by Chris Tabb.
- CVI: Orientation and Mobility
This section of the American Printing House for the Blind (APH) website is dedicated to resources for cortical visual impairment (CVI). The O&M web page includes instructional resources that includes Orientation and Mobility.
- Games That Enhance the O&M Experience for Children
The Professional Development and Research Institute on Blindness offers games designed to enhance students’ O&M skills. Instructions are provided for creating and playing the games.
- Orientation and Mobility for Children who are Blind or Visually Impaired
This FamilyConnect resource provides general information about O&M instruction and links to resources for families about supporting O&M instruction at various age levels.
- Orientation and Mobility Activities for Families of Children who are Blind or Visually Impaired
This FamilyConnect resource includes a list of O&M activities that parents and families can do with their children to reinforce O&M concepts and skills.
- Parent Mobility
This site includes O&M resources for caregivers and families, including videos that highlight information about O&M techniques.
- Paths to Technology: Orientation and Mobility Posts
Paths to Technology offers a wide range of O&M articles and activities.
- Perkins Scout Overview of Orientation and Mobility
This site has a compilation of online resources specific to blindness/visual impairment, including orientation and mobility. The site is maintained by the Perkins School for the Blind.
- Perkins School for the Blind O&M Pinterest Page
Perkins maintains an O&M Pinterest page with a variety of ideas and resources for helping individuals with a visual impairment.
- Perkins WonderBaby.org – Orientation and Mobility for Babies
The O&M web page on wonderbaby.org details O&M activities with infants and toddlers
For more information, please contact:
Tanni Anthony, Ph.D.
State Consultant on Blindness/Visual Impairment and Deaf-Blindness
Email Tanni Anthony
Phone: (303) 503-4647
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